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2018年考研英语(二)真题

来源:www.njnuyz.com 作者:南师大考研网 浏览:879 次 发布时间:2017/12/25

2018年的考研初试已落下帷幕,各个科目的考研真题以及答案解析也已新鲜出炉,不管考得如何,只要你认真待之,就无后悔可言,因为它已成为你人生中不可或缺的宝贵经历之一,不时回忆起,也会为那个为了梦想坚持、努力的自己骄傲。下面,仙林南师大考研网www.njnuyz.com就为各位考生整理发布2018年各个科目的真题。

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2018年考研英语(二)真题

SectionⅠ Use of English

Directions:

Read the following text. Choose the best word(s) for each numbered blank and mark [A],[B], [C] or [D] on the ANSWER SHEET. (10 points)

Why do people read negative Internet comments and do other things that will obviously be painful? Because humans have an inherent need to 1 uncertainty, according to a recent study in Psychological Science. The new research reveals that the need to know is strong that people will 2 to satisfy their curiosity even when it is clear the answer will 3 .

In a series of experiments, behavioral scientists at the University of Chicago and the Wisconsin school of Business tested students willingness to 4 themselves to unpleasant stimuli in an effort to satisfy curiosity. For one 5 , each participant was shown a pile of pens that the researcher claimed were from a previous experiment. The twist? Half of the pens would 6 an electric shock when clicked.

Twenty-seven students were told with pens were electrified; another twenty-seven were told only that some were electrified. 7 left alone in the room. The students who did not know which ones would shock them clicked more pens and incurred more shocks than the students who knew that would 8 . Subsequent experiments reproduced this effect with other stimuli, 9 the sound of fingernails on a chalkboard and photographs of disgusting insects.

The drive to 10 is deeply rooted in humans, much the same as the basic drives for 11 or shelter, says Christopher Hsee of the University of Chicago. Curiosity is often considered a good instinctit can 12 new scientific advances, for instancebut sometimes such 13 can backfire. The insight that curiosity can drive you to do 14 things is a profound one.

Unhealthycuriosity is possible to 15 , however. In a final experiment, participants who were encouraged to 16 how they would feel after viewing an unpleasant picture were less likely to 17 to see such an image. These results suggest that imagining the 18 of following through on ones curiosity ahead of time can help determine 19 it is worth the endeavor. Thinking about long-term 20 is key to reducing the possible negative effects of curiosity,Hsee says. In other words, dont read online comments.

1.A.ignore B.protect C.discuss D.resolve

2.A.refuse B.seek C.wait D.regret

3.A.rise B.last C.hurt D.mislead

4.A.alert B.expose C.tie D.treat

5.A.trial B.message C.review D.concept

6.A.remove B.deliver C.weaken D.interrupt

7.A.Unless B.If C.When D.Though

8.A.change B.continue C.disappear D.happen

9.A.such as B.rather than C.regardless of D.owing to

10.A.disagree B.forgive C.discover D.forget

11.A.pay B.food C.marriage D.schooling

12.A.begin with B.rest on C.lead to D.learn from

13.A.inquiry B.withdrawal C.persistence D.diligence

14.A.self-deceptive B.self-reliant C.self-evident D.self-destructive

15.A.trace B.define C.replace D.resist

16.A.conceal B.overlook C.design D.predict

17.A.choose B.remember C.promise D.pretend

18.A.relief B.outcome C.plan D.duty

19.A.how B.why C.where D.whether

20.A.limitations B.investments C.consequences D.strategies

Section IIReading Comprehension

       Part A

Directions:

Read the following four texts. Answer the questions below each text by choosing [A],[B], [C] or [D]. Mark your answers on the ANSWER SHEET. (40 points)

Text 1

It is curious that Stephen Koziatek feels almost as though he has to justify his efforts to give his students a better future.

Mr. Koziatek is part of something pioneering. He is a teacher at a New Hampshire high school where learning is not something of books and tests and mechanical memorization, but practical. When did it become accepted wisdom that students should be able to name the 13th president of the United States but be utterly overwhelmed by a broken bike Chain?

As Koziatek know, there is learning in just about everything. Nothing is necessarily gained by forcing students to learn geometry at a graffitied desk stuck with generations of discarded chewing gum. They can also learn geometry by assembling a bicycle.

But hes also found a kind of insidious prejudice. Working with your hands is seen as almost a mark of inferiority. School in the family of vocational education have that stereotype...that its for kids who cant make it academically, he says.

On one hand,that viewpoint is a logical product of Americas evolution.Manufacturing is not the economic engine that it once was.The job security that the US economy once offered to high school graduates has largely evaporated. More education is the new principle.We want more for our kids,and rightfully so.

But the headlong push into bachelors degrees for alland the subtle devaluing of anything lessmisses an important point:Thats not the only thing the American economy needs.Yes,a bachelors degree opens moredoors.Buteven now,54 percent of the jobs in the country are middle-skill jobs,such as construction and high-skill manufacturing.But only 44 percent of workers are adequately trained.

In other words,at a time when the working class has turned the country on its political head,frustrated that the opportunity that once defined America is vanishing,one obvious solution is staring us in the face.There is a gap in working-class jobs, but the workers who need those jobs most arent equipped to do them.Koziateks Manchester School of Technology High School is trying to fill that gap.

Koziateks school is a wake-up call. When education becomes one-size-fits-all,it risks overlooking a nations diversity of gifts.

21.A broken bike chain is mentioned to show students lack of.

A.academic training

B.practical ability

C.pioneering spirit

D.mechanical memorization

22.There exists the prejudice that vocational education is for kids who.

A.have a stereotyped mind

B.have no career motivation

C.are financially disadvantaged

D.are not academically successful

23.we can infer from Paragraph 5 that high school graduates.

A.used to have more job opportunities

B.used to have big financial concerns

C.are entitled to more educational privileges

D.are reluctant to work in manufacturing

24.The headlong push into bachelors degrees for all.

A.helps create a lot of middle-skill jobs

B.may narrow the gap in working-class jobs

C.indicates the overvaluing of higher education

D.is expected to yield a better-trained workforce

25.The authors attitude toward Koziateks school can be described as.

A.tolerant

B.cautious

C.supportive

D.disappointed

       Text 2

While fossil fuelscoaloilgasstill generate roughly 85 percent of the worlds energy supply, it's clearer than ever that the future belongs to renewable sources such as wind and solar.The move to renewables is picking up momentum around the worldThey now account for more than half of new power sources going on line.

Some growth stems from a commitment by governments and farsighted businesses to fund cleaner energy sources. But increasingly the story is about the plummetingprices of renewablesespecially wind and solar.The cost of solar panels has dropped by 80 percent and the cost of wind turbines by close to one-third in the past eight years.

In many parts of the world renewable energy is already a principal energy source.In Scotlandfor examplewind turbines provide enough electricity to power 95 percent of homes.While the rest of the world takes the leadnotably China and Europethe United States is also seeing a remarkable shift.In Marchfor the first timewind and solar power accounted for more than 10 percent of the power generated in the USreported the US Energy Information Administration.

President Trump has underlined fossil fuelsespecially coalas the path to economic growth.In a recent speech in Iowahe dismissed wind power as an unreliable energy source.But that message did not play well with many in Iowawhere wind turbines dot the fields and provide 36 percent of the states electricity generationand where tech giants like Microsoft are being attracted by the availability of clean energy to power their data centers.

The questionwhat happens when the wind doesnt blow or the sun doesnt shine?has provided a quick put-down for skeptics.But a boost in the storage capacity of batteries is making their ability to keep power flowing around the clock more likely.

The advance is driven in part by vehicle manufacturerswho are placing big bets on battery-powered electric vehicles.Although electric cars are still a rarity on roads now,this massive investment could change the picture rapidly in coming years.

While theres a long way to gothe trend lines for renewables are spiking.The pace of change in energy sources appears to be speeding upperhaps just in time to have a meaningful effect in slowing climate change.What Washington doesor doesnt doto promote alternative energy may mean less and less at a time of a global shift in thought.

26.The wordplummeting(Line 3Para.2)is closest in meaning to.

A.stabilizing

B.changing

C.falling

D.rising

27.According to Paragraph 3the use of renewable energy in America.

A.is progressing notably

B.is as extensive as in Europe

C.faces many challenges

D.has proved to be impractical

28.It can be learned that in Iowa, .

A.wind is a widely used energy source

B.wind energy has replaced fossil fuels

C.tech giants are investing in clean energy

D.there is a shortage of clean energy supply

29.Which ofthe following is true about clean energy according to Paragraphs 5&6?

A.Its application has boosted battery storage.

B.It is commonly used in car manufacturing.

C.Its continuous supply is becoming a reality.

D.Its sustainable exploitation will remain difficult.

30.It can be inferred from the last paragraph that renewable energy.

A.will bring the US closer to other countries

B.will accelerate global environmental change

C.is not really encouraged by the US government

D.is not competitive enough with regard to its cost

       Text 3

The power and ambition of the giants of the digital economy is astonishingAmazon has just announced the purchase of the upmarket grocery chain Whole Foods for$13.5bnbut two years ago Facebook paid even more than that to acquire the WhatsApp messaging servicewhich doesnt have any physical product at all. What WhatsApp offered Facebook was an intricate and finely detailed web of its usersfriendships and social lives.

Facebook promised the European commission then that it would not link phone numbers to Facebook identitiesbut it broke the promise almost as soon as the deal went through.Even without knowing what was in the messagesthe knowledge of who sent them and to whom was enormously revealing and still could be.What political journalistwhat party whipwould not want to know the makeup of the WhatsApp groups in which Theresa Mays enemies are currentlyplotting?It may be that the value of Whole Foods to Amazon is not so much the 460 shops it owns, but the records of which customers have purchased what.

Competition law appears to be the only way to address these imbalances of power.But it is clumsy. For one thing, it is very slow compared to the pace of change within the digital economy. By the time a problem has been addressed and remedied it may have vanished in the marketplace, to be replaced by new abuses of power.But there is a deeper conceptual problem, too. Competition law as presently interpreted deals with financial disadvantage to consumers and this is not obvious when the users of these services dont pay for them.The users of their services are not their customers.That would be the people who buy advertising from themand Facebook and Googlethe two virtual giantsdominate digital advertising to the disadvantage of all other media and entertainment companies.

The product theyre selling is dataand wethe usersconvert our lives to data for the benefit of the digital giants. Just as some ants farm the bugs called aphidsfor the honeydew they produce when they feed, so Google farms us for the data that our digital lives yield.Ants keep predatory insects away from where their aphids feed; Gmail keeps the spammers out of our inboxes.It doesnt feel like a human or democratic relationshipeven if both sides benefit.

31. According to Paragraph 1, Facebook acquired WhatsApp for its.

A.digital products

B.user information

C.physical assets

D.quality service

32.Linking phone numbers to Facebook identities may.

A.worsen political disputes

B.mess up customer records

C.pose a risk to Facebook users

D.mislead the European commission

33.According to the author,competition law.

A.should serve the new market powers

B.may worsen the economic imbalance

C.should not provide just one legal solution

D.cannot keep pace with the changing market

34.Competition law as presently interpreted can hardly protect Facebook users because.

A.they are not defined as customers

B.they are not financially reliable

C.the services are generally digital

D.the services are paid for by advertisers

35.The ants analogy is used to illustrate.

A.a win-win business model between digital giants

B.a typical competition pattern among digital giants

C.the benefits provided for digital giantscustomers

D.the relationship between digital giants and their users

 Text 4

To combat the trap of putting a premium on being busy,Cal Newport,author of Deep work: Rules for Focused Success in a Distracted world,recommends building a habit of deep work”—the ability to focus without distraction.

There are a number of approaches to mastering the art of deep workbe it lengthy retreats dedicated to a specific task;developing a daily ritual;or taking a journalistic approach to seizing moments of deep work when you can throughout the day. Whichever approach,the key is to determine your length of focus time and stick to it.

Newport also recommends deepscheduling to combat constant interruptions and get more done in less time.At any given point,Ishould have deep work scheduled for roughly the next month.Once on the calendar I protect this time like Iwould a doctors appointment or important meeting,he writes.

Another approach to getting more done in less time is to rethink how you prioritize your dayin particular how we craft our to-do lists.Tim Harford, author of Messy:The Power of Disorder to Transform Our Lives,points to a study in the early 1980s that divided undergraduates into two groups:some were advised to set out monthly goals and study activities;others were told to plan activities and goals in much more detail,day by day.

While the researchers assumed that the well-structured daily plans would be most effective when it came to the execution of tasks,they were wrong:the detailed daily plans demotivated students.Harford argues that inevitable distractions often render the daily to-do list ineffective,while leaving room for improvisation in such a list can reap the best results.

In order to make the most of our focus and energy. We also need to embrace downtime,or as Newport suggests,be lazy.

Idleness is not just a vacation,an indulgence or a vice;it is as indispensable to be brain as Vitamin D is to the body...[idleness]is, paradoxically, necessary to getting any work done,he argues.

Srini Pillay,an assistant professor of psychiatry at Harvard Medical School,believes this counter-intuitive link between downtime and productivity may be due to the way our brains operate When our brains switch between being focused and unfocused on a task,they tend to be more efficient.

What people dont realise is that in order to complete these tasks they need to use both the focus and unfocus circuits in their brain. says Pillay.

36. The key to mastering the art of deep work is to ________.

A.keep to your focus time

B.list your immediate tasks

C.make specific daily plans

D.seize every minute to work

37. The study in the early 1980s cited by Harford shows that ________.

A.distractions may actually increase efficiency

B.daily schedules are indispensable to studying

C.students are hardly motivated by monthly goals

D.detailed plans many not be as fruitful as expected

38. According to Newport, idleness is ________.

A.a desirable mental state for busy people

B.a major contributor to physical health

C.an effective way to save time and energy

D.an essential factor in accomplishing any work

39. Pillay believes that our brains shift between being focused and unfocused _______.

A.can result in psychological well-being

B.canbring about greater efficiency

C.is aimed at better balance in work

D.is driven by task urgency

40. This text is mainly about _______.

A.ways to relieve the tension of busy life

B.approaches to getting more done in less time

C.the key to eliminating distractions

D.the cause of the lack of focus time

       Part B

Directions:

Read the following text and match each of the numbered items in the left column to its corresponding information in the right column. There are two extra choices in the right column. Mark your answers on the ANSWER SHEET. (10 points)

A. Just say it

B. Be present

C. Pay a unique compliment

D. Name, places, things

E. Find the me toos

F. Skip the small talk

G. Ask for an opinion

Five ways to make conversation with anyone

Conversations are links, which means when you have a conversation with a new person a link gets formed and every conversation you have after that moment will strengthen the link.

You meet new people every day: the grocery worker, the cab driver, new people at work or the security guard at the door. Simply starting a conversation with them will form a link.

Here are five simple ways that you can make the first move and start a conversation with strangers.

41.____________

Suppose you are in a room with someone you dont know and something within you saysI want to talk with this person”—this is something the mostly happens with all of us. You wanted to say somethingthe first wordbut it just wont come out. It feels like itis stuck somewhere, I know the feeling and here is my advice just get it out.

Just think: that is the worst that could happen? They wont talk with you? Well, they are not talking with you now!

I truly believe that once you get that first word out everything else will just flow. So keep it simple: Hi,HeyorHello”—do the best you can to gather all of the enthusiasm and energy you can, put on a big smile and sayHi.

42.____________

Its a problem all of us face: you have limited time with the person that you want to talk with and you want to make this talk memorable.

Honestly, if we got stuck in the rut ofhi,hello, how are you?andwhats going on?you will fail to give the initial jolt to the conversation thats can make it so memorable.

So dont be afraid to ask more personal questions. Trust me, youll be surprised to see how much people are willing to share if you just ask.

43.____________

When you meet a person for the first time, make an effort to find the things which you and that person have in common so that you can build the conversation from that point. When you start conversation from there and then move outwards, youll find all of a sudden that the conversation becomes a lot easier.

44.____________

Imagine you are pouring your heart out to someone and they are just busy on their phone, and if you ask for their attention you get the response I can multitask.

So when someone tries to communicate with you, just be in that communication wholeheartedly. Make eye contact, you can feel the conversation.

45.____________

You all came into a conversation where you first met the person, but after some time you may have met again and have forgotten their name. Isnt that awkward!

So remember the little details of the people you met or you talked with; perhaps the places they have been to the place they want to go, the things they like, the thing the hatewhatever you talk about.

When you remember such thing you can automatically become investor in their wellbeing. So the feel a responsibility to you to keep that relationship going.

Thats it. Five amazing ways that you can make conversation with almost anyone. Every person is a really good book to read, or to have a conversation with!

Section Translation

46.Directions:

Translate the following text into Chinese. Your translation should be written on the ANSWER SHEET. (15 points)

A fifth garder gets a homework assignment to select his future career path from a list of occupations. He ticks astronaut but quickly adds scientist to the list and selects it as well. The boy is convinced that if he reads enough. He can explore as many career paths as he likes. And so he readseverything from encyclopedias to science fiction novels. He reads so passionately that his parents have to institute a no reading policyat the dinner table.

That boy was Bill Gates,and he hasnt stopped reading yetnot even after becoming one of the most science fiction and reference books; recently, he revealed that he reads at least so nonfiction books a year. Gates chooses nonfiction title because they explain how the world works.Each book opens up new avenues of knowledge,Gates says.

Section Writing

Part A

47. Directions:

Suppose you have to cancel your travel plan and will not be able to visit Professor Smith. Write him an email to

1)apologize and explain the situation, and

2)suggest a future meeting.

You should write about 100 words on the ANSWER SHEET.

Do not use your own name. UseLi Ming instead.

Do not write your address.(10 points)

Part B

48. Directions

Write an essay based on the chart below. In your writing you should

1)interpret the chart and

2)give your comments

You should write about 150 words on the ANSWER SHEET.(15 points)

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